Solutions to Violent Conflict

Archive for the ‘Colombia’ Category

Crowbar No. 1325

In Colombia, Women on December 4, 2018 at 9:58 am

Kate Paarlberg-Kvam

Colombia’s 2016 Peace Accord is a groundbreaking example of how to include women and a gender focus in negotiations and peacebuilding. This achievement is the result of years of advocacy by Colombian women, with the support of the international community. To claim a role in the peace process, Colombian women effectively made use of UN Security Council Resolution 1325, which mandates that UN member states increase women’s participation in peace and security efforts and take gender and gender-based violence into account when making decisions about armed conflict and its resolution. Colombian women’s strategic use of 1325 produced an accord that both reflects and extends beyond international dialogues on Women, Peace, and Security.

Resolution 1325 was adopted 18 years ago, the result of a concerted effort by women activists around the world. Several NGOs, including groups in New York, Dakar, and London, came together to advance the Beijing Platform for Action that emerged from the Fourth World Conference on Women in 1995. They were supported in particular by member states in the Global South, and propelled by Namibia’s May 2000 Windhoek Declaration calling for attention to gender in the design of peace support operations. While 1325 and subsequent WPS (Women, Peace, and Security) resolutions have been criticized for their limitations, they nonetheless have served as a powerful tool. Read the rest of this entry »

Women’s Participation: An Essential Principle of the Colombian Peace Accord Implementation Process

In Colombia, Women on December 4, 2018 at 9:57 am
peace policy

CIAT, Mark Koester, Momentcaptured1, Neil Palmer / Flickr

Rebecca Gindele and Carolina Serrano

The inclusion of a gender perspective and specific gender-related commitments in the text of the Colombian Peace Accord is an important step toward strengthening women’s meaningful participation in the building of peace. The Accord text includes a record number of commitments relating to women’s participation and the advancement of women’s rights. These gender provisions commit the Government of Colombia, FARC, and all relevant actors involved in the implementation of the Accord to ensure that the process includes a focus on women’s rights and women’s participation. These commitments seek to achieve equality of rights between men and women and guarantee affirmative measures to promote equal and active participation of women in the implementation of the accord. Read the rest of this entry »

Inclusive Pathways to Equal Peace: Systematic Methodology for Monitoring Gender Stipulations in the Colombian Final Agreement

In Colombia, Women on December 4, 2018 at 9:57 am

Louise Olsson and Madhav Joshi

To determine the quality of peace, it is important to evaluate if men and women experience the same peace process differently. As recently stated by the UN Secretary General, the systematic monitoring of peace agreement implementation is fundamental to the strength and durability of peace. We argue that this means collecting high-quality gender disaggregated data, and utilizing an inclusive methodology that seriously engages both women and men.[1]

Inclusivity and systematic monitoring are at the core of the Kroc Institute’s Peace Accords Matrix Barometer Initiative in Colombia. The Barometer methodology applied to the Colombian Peace Accord implementation process represents the first real-time monitoring of a comprehensive peace agreement.

A key element of the Barometer methodology is engaging key stakeholders in the Colombian peace process who are promoting women’s rights and gender representation and participation. A total of 20 organizations in Colombia were consulted or involved in developing the methodology for assessing the implementation of gender-related provisions. Read the rest of this entry »

Approaching the End of a Fifty-Year Conflict

In Colombia, Peace Accords, Peacebuilding on January 28, 2015 at 2:21 pm

Jennifer McCoy

Jennifer McCoy is Distinguished University Professor at Georgia State University and Director of the Carter Center’s Americas Program. She has met frequently with negotiators and other Colombian actors during peace talks.

The year 2014 marked the 50th anniversary of the creation of the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC), and thus the 50th year of continuous violent conflict in Colombia. Now in their 26th month of formal talks, the negotiations between the Colombian government and the FARC have reached a delicate but propitious stage to end the conflict and begin the long arduous task of peace implementation. The children born in 2015 could be the first Colombians in generations who will not know war.

The talks have achieved agreements on some issues and now are addressing the difficult questions of victims’ rights and the mechanisms to end the conflict. After conducting talks in the midst of war for two years, on December 20 the FARC announced an indefinite unilateral ceasefire. On January 14 President Santos instructed his military negotiators to analyze the possibilities for a bilateral ceasefire. Read the rest of this entry »

Colombian Peace Process: Bridging Research and Practice

In Colombia, Peace Accords, Peacebuilding on January 28, 2015 at 2:21 pm

Photo: Rainbow over Bogotá by PradaDearest (Flickr, July 10, 2013)

John Paul Lederach

John Paul Lederach is an internationally known peacebuilder and teacher who contributes to the Peace Accords Matrix at the Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies.

In October 2012, formal talks between the Colombian government and the largest armed insurgency in the country were launched in Oslo and soon after transferred to Havana. Supported by Cuban and Norwegian facilitators, these negotiations were the first serious attempt in more than a decade to end the half-century war. In the past two years the talks have made important progress and have seen innovations on several fronts. Read the rest of this entry »

Colombia, from a Mediator’s Perspective

In Colombia, Peace Accords, Peacebuilding on January 28, 2015 at 2:20 pm

Francisco Diez

Francisco Diez has extensive experience mediating conflicts throughout Latin America and is actively working on the Colombia peace process.

Colombia is a country of contrasts. While military dictatorships and foreign indebtedness characterized most of the continent during the latter half of the 20th century, Colombia experienced democratic regimes and kept its finances under control. Yet it was also the only country in the region with a strong guerrilla movement that remained active for decades.

The political elites and social leaders of Colombia are among the most intelligent and educated men and women in the world. The country’s entrepreneurs and traders are among the most successful, and they have produced wealth and a reasonable level of development. Yet the economy has been plagued by drug production and trafficking.


In Colombia the institutional framework of democracy and the separation of powers are firmly established. Modernity and technology have reached most of its cities. Yet in much of the countryside, life and personal integrity are in constant danger, the institutions of the state are largely absent, and legality is selective at best. Read the rest of this entry »